This SP will develop and apply a new methodology to analyse and assess policies, strategies and measures that reduce health impacts caused by PM10 and precursor emissions from transport.
We define a policy as the implementation of a policy instrument by public authorities to achieve the fulfilment of their aims, e.g. imposing a tax or city toll, setting a threshold or deciding to build new infrastructure. A measure is the response of actors like vehicle users or producers, e.g. retrofitting a particulate filter or shifting from private to public transport. A strategy comprises a bundle of measures, or as policy strategy, a bundle of policies.
We will also analyse mitigation measures that change emission factors, stocks (e.g. number of fuel cell cars) and activities (e.g. km driven on motorways with a certain vehicle type) and thus emissions as adaption measures that reduce health impacts without changing emissions, e.g. by equipping cars with filters for the inroom air ventilation or by changing the sojourn of people. Mitigation and adaption measures or policies can be grouped into the following two categories:
By administrative level:
Policies and abatement measures are effective on different administrative levels and will thus follow different goals. Policies on European level like the Greening Transport Package that involves an internalisation of transport external costs and a proposal on road tolls for heavy duty vehicles or fuel taxes set the overall frame. In addition policies that aim for the reduction of greenhouse gases or air pollution in general also include measures directed towards transport. Each member state has a strategy to reduce air pollution and associated health impacts due to transport by national laws or policies (e.g. abatement measures given in the national programmes in the frame of the NEC-Directive, fuel taxes). On a regional or city level, transport and city planers as well as environmental authorities are working on individual strategies to improve air quality and health according to their regional and local condition. Regional or urban policies are e.g. bypasses, traffic flow measures, environmental zones, cycling lane networks, improved public transport etc. Some city authorities will go beyond that and use measures on hot spot level e.g. local driving bans or tunnel mouths (as investigated in the city of Utrecht).
By point of application in the full chain:
According to the full chain (or DPSIR or impact pathway) approach that is used here, measures and policies can have an impact at different stages of the chain. First of all, emission factors (that state emissions per activity, e.g. per km driven with a certain type of car) can be changed, especially by technical measures, that are defined as measures that change the technique of a vehicle (e.g. by installing a particulate filter). More sophisticated is the analysis of non-technical measures that change the decisions/behaviour of persons and thus stock (number of vehicles of a certain type, substitution of fuels and/or technologies) and activities (e.g. km driven per vehicle). This includes measures in the field of urban transport planning and urban traffic engineering. Such measures are e.g. ban of through traffic of heavy vehicles through sensible areas, introduction of environmental zones which allow access only for motorized vehicles fulfilling specific environmental standards, network-wide improvement of the operation of signalized intersections, e.g. by adaptive control systems, speed limits, increase of share of non-motorized transport (bicycles, pedestrians), increase of share of public transport or co-ordination of urban planning and transport planning to reduce the transport demand and others. Installing (or removing) transport infrastructure (roads, airports, cycle lanes) might also change stocks and activities and also has an influence on the spatial pattern of the activity. All these measures change emission factor and /or stock and activity and thus the emissions (which are the product of emission factor, stock and activity) and are thus mitigation options.
In addition, there are measures, that do not change emissions, but exposures, by technical measures (controlled ventilation with filter) or non-technical measures (change in behaviour, e.g. more sojourn in less polluted areas). Also some city planning measures, e.g. moving households or schools to less polluted areas fall in this category. One might also think of measures, that change exposure response relationships, e.g. by better health care services, however these are only mentioned, but not analysed in detail.